Components for Generating Orbital Angular Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic (EM) waves are used to provide modern telecommunications for transmitting and receiving data. Conventional modes of communication involve some form of modulation, such as amplitude, frequency and pulse-width modulation. Controlling the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) of EM waves is an advanced means of modulating EM waves and signals that enables transmissions to vastly increase the data rates above conventional modulation schemes.
Existing passive components for OAM based devices includes parabolic reflectors, thickness varied spiral phase plate and planar spiral phase plate. However, these aforementioned components generally lack the compactness, flat surfaces, perfect impedance matching and ease of manufacturing.
This invention is lightweight, compact, easily fabricated, and cheaper for mass production than its conventional OAM parabolic reflector counterparts. In addition, the proposed invention will be able to seamlessly extend 4G communications data rates into data rate ranges anticipated for 5G and it will have lower losses and a larger bandwidth, and thus faster, more efficient transmission of data, than competitor OAM sources. That is to say that this device could be retrofit onto existing telecommunications towers.
Further, this invention provides a flat spiral phase plate that contains an array of perforated holes that collect EM energy from incoming EM waves and which adjust the phase of the incident EM waves to create the OAM modulation effect. Furthermore, the invention may have one or more layers, and in multiple layer configurations, top and bottom impedance matching layers minimize energy losses and enable high efficiency generation of OAM modulated waves.